Immigrants Say They Are English-Proficient; Tests Say Otherwise

Study finds newcomers who rate their language skills as 'good' score poorly on literacy exam

by Brendan Kirby | Updated 07 Jul 2017 at 11:15 AM

Many Hispanic immigrants who rate their English skills highly perform at low levels on English proficiency tests, according to a study released Wednesday.

The research, published by the Center for Immigration Studies, calls into question the argument that concerns over language gaps are overblown because new arrivals quickly pick up English.

“It really kind of overstates the level of assimilation to say, ‘Don’t worry; by the second generation, they will be literate,'” said Jason Richwine, an independent researcher who wrote the report for the Washington think tank.

The conventional wisdom on immigrants' language skills come from the results of the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. In 2015, the survey indicated that 73.6 percent of all immigrants — and 57.6 of Hispanic immigrants — speak only English at home or claim to speak English "very well" or "well." Among Hispanics born in the United States, that share is 91 percent.

"That particular statistic has been cited very often by people who are in favor of expanding immigration," he said.

To assess those claims, Richwine turned to the Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), a battery of tests administered randomly to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. That included 8,000 people in America between the ages of 16 and 74, from 2012 through 2014. It asked examinees the same self-assessment question the Census Bureau asked.

Of immigrants claiming to speak English well or very well, 28 percent scored "below basic," on the PIAAC literacy test — twice the rate of native-born Americans who say they speak English well or very well. Among Hispanic immigrants in that category, 44 percent scored below basic, a level that Richwine said equates to functional illiteracy.

Self-Assessed High, Scored Low
Self-rated as speaking English "very well" or "well" yet scored "below basic"*
GroupShare
Hispanic immigrants44%
Non-Hispanic immigrants20%
All immigrants28%
Hispanic natives21%
All natives14%
*Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies English test
Source: Center for Immigration Studies

Hispanic immigrants who rated themselves as good English speakers also were far less likely to achieve "elite" scores on the PIAAC testing. Just 2 percent of Hispanic immigrants who believe they speak English well or very well earned the highest scores on the test. That compares with 12 percent of non-Hispanic immigrants and 14 percent of natives.

Analyzed a different way, the average Hispanic immigrant who rated himself as a good or very good English speaker scored in the 18th percentile on the test, meaning that 82 percent of all who took the test did better. The average non-Hispanic immigrant in that category scored in the 43rd percentile.

Richwine said non-Hispanic immigrants likely perform better on the literacy test because they tend to come to the United States with better language skills than their Spanish-speaking counterparts. Lots of research has indicated that immigrants from Mexico and Central America are more likely to be high school dropouts and less likely to speak English. They also are more likely to be illiterate in their native language.

Scored High on Test
Self-rated as speaking English "very well" or "well" and scoring "elite" on test*
GroupShare
Hispanic immigrants2%
Non-Hispanic immigrants12%
All immigrants9%
Hispanic natives6%
All natives14%
*Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies English test
Source: Center for Immigration Studies

So why do Hispanic immigrants tend to overstate their English competence? Richwine said he believes the answer rests with the large number of Spanish-speaking immigrants in America. It is by far the dominant language other than English. As a result, he said, it is easier for immigrants to get through life without learning English well.

This is particularly true in areas with large Spanish-speaking enclaves. Signs are in Spanish. Businesses cater specifically to Spanish speakers. Many Hispanic immigrants find jobs that do not require high-level English and are likely to have Spanish-speaking co-workers who can help them.

"The ability to speak English completely fluently is essential for a sense of civic fluency as well."

Richwine said the typical Hispanic immigrant living in one of those enclaves may speak English better than many of his friends and neighbors and, therefore, believe he speaks the language well, even it his proficiency is only mediocre.

"My suspicion is that a lot of it has to do with context," he said.

More troubling, Richwine said, is that the English language gap does not disappear even after many years — or the next generation.

Among Hispanic immigrants who have lived in the United States more than 15 years, only 1 percent scored at the elite level on the PIAAC test, and 67 percent were in the lowest "below basic" category. By contrast, 12 percent of non-Hispanic immigrants who have been in America more than 15 years scored at the elite level, while only 22 percent were below basic. (go to page 2 to continue reading)

Page: 1 2

  1. english
  2. spanish
  3. center-for-immigration-studies
  4. esl
  5. illegal-immigration
  6. immigration
You Might Also Like...

Comments are closed.